The sys.dm_os_buffer_descriptors Dynamic Management View gives you a look into the data pages that are currently in your SQL Server buffer pool. Just in case you are not familiar with some of the internals to SQL Server and how the engine works, SQL Server only works with objects that are in memory (buffer pool). When an object such as a table needs to be read and it does not exist in the buffer pool, SQL Server will read (copy) the necessary data page(s) from disk into the buffer pool and cache it. Caching takes place so that it can be reused again and prevents the need of expensive physical reads. To better illustrate this DMV, lets query it against our AdventureWorks2012 database and view the result set.
SELECT * FROM sys.dm_os_buffer_descriptors
WHERE database_id = db_id('AdventureWorks2012')
The first column returned from this result set is the database_id column which identifies the specific database for a given row. The file_id column represents the file that a particular buffer descriptor belongs to. The page_id column represents the ID for the data page within the buffer. The page_level column represents the index level of the data page. Next we have the allocation_unit_id column which identifies a unique allocation unit. An allocation unit is basically a set of data pages. The page_type column tells us exactly what type of page is in the buffer pool. From my screen shot above you see I have 3 distinct type of Pages in my buffer pool, Index, Data, and IAM pages. Index pages are pages that are used to build the Root and Intermediate levels of a B-Tree. A Data page would represent the actual leaf pages of a clustered index which contain the actual data for the table. Without getting into too much detail, an IAM page is Index Allocation Map page which track GAM (Global Allocation Map) pages which in turn track extents on your system. The row_count column details how many data rows are present on a given page. The free_space_in_bytes tells you how much of a given data page is still available, remember pages are 8K in size. The is_modified signifies whether or not a page has been changed since it has been read into memory, .ie a dirty page. The numa_node column represents the Nonuniform memory access node for the buffer. Lastly is the read_microsec column which tells you how many microseconds it took for a data page to be read (copied) into the buffer pool.
This is a great DMV for use when you are tracking down a memory issue or if you just want to have a look at what type of pages are currently in your buffer pool.
For more information about this DMV, please see the below Books Online link:
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